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Types of Elctrotherapy Currents

  MENS ( Microcurrent Electrical Nerve Stimulation)


Microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation or MENS, as opposed to conventional electrotherapy where mA currents are administered, uses currents whose intensity varies between 10 and 500 µA (microamperes, of millionths of an ampere).
Much scientific research shows that the ATP (adenosine 5’-triphosphate) synthesis level is increased by the application of microcurrents, whilst on the other hand these later seem to undergo a slowing down when endogenous mA currents are applied. 
In particular, the increment of the ATP synthesis reaches its maximum levels thanks to the administration of 500 µA currents while, beyond this level of intensity, it rapidly decreases. In view of this, it is important to remember that ATP represents the principle source of intracellular chemical energy in every single living organism and can be used in a wide variety of biological activity, including in the healing processes of damaged tissue. 
Another very interesting aspect regarding the application of MENS is due to the fact that the capitation of alpha-Aminobutyric acid increases noticeably thanks to the application of an hexogenous current starting with an intensity level of 10µA while, on the other hand, starting with an intensity level of 750 µA there would be an inhibitory effect. Seeing as the capitation of alpha-Aminobutyric acid is essential to the protein synthesis mechanism (which are at the roots of tissue repair processes) an increase of its level by 30-40%, like that which is affected thanks to MENS applications, could play an essential role in cellular reconstruction processes.
The base mechanism which determines an increase in ATP synthesis is essentially constituted by the fact that, during MENS induced electro stimulation a proton gradient is created, that is, a variation of proton concentration, which determines the beginning of a flow of protons from the anode to the cathode.
This proton flow through the mitochondrial membrane determines an increase in ATP formation which, in turn, stimulates the transport of amino acids, two factors essential to incrementing protein synthesis.  
MENS Therapy
MENS therapy normally involves two distinct phases, the first of which is aimed at the lessening of the pain felt by the patient, while the second phase promotes protein and ATP synthesis, thereby speeding up the process of tissue healing. Treatment duration is normally 15 to 30 minutes for the first phase and between 5 to 10 minutes for the second phase. The most frequently used parameters, which, however, vary according to the type of pathology being treated, are, for the first phase: intensity levels of between 1 and 5 µA, with a frequency of about 5 Hz and with 250 millisecond wide pulsations, whereas for the second phase the normal parameters applied are as follows: an intensity level of between 10 and 200 µA with a frequency of between 0.3 and 1 Hz with a pulse width of 100 millisecond at least.
The efficiency of MENS therapy has been scientifically proven in the following fields:
• reduction of oedemas and swelling of the traumatised area.
• Osteoarthritis
• Stimulation of the production of cartilaginous proliferation processes. • Acceleration of tendon repair processes.
• Osteogenisis process facilitation